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Adverse events of conscious sedation using midazolam for gastrointestinal endoscopy
Anesth Pain Med 2019;14(4):401-6
Published online October 31, 2019
© 2019 Korean Society of Neuroscience in Anesthesiology and Critical Care.

Jeeyoung Jun1 , Jong In Han1 , Ae Lee Choi2 , Youn Jin Kim1 , Jong Wha Lee1 , Dong Yeon Kim1 , and Minjin Lee1
Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, 1Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, 2Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital, Seoul, Korea
Correspondence to: Jong In Han, M.D., Ph.D. Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, 1071 Anyangcheon-ro, Yangcheon-gu, Seoul 07985, Korea Tel: 82-2-2650-5559 Fax: 82-2-2655-2924 E-mail:
Received April 25, 2018; Revised January 24, 2019; Accepted February 14, 2019.
cc This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Background: This study was conducted to identify the types and incidence of adverse events associated with midazolam, which is the most widely used drug to induce conscious sedation during gastrointestinal endoscopy, and to analyze the factors associated with hypoxemia and sedation failure.
Methods: Of 87,740 patients who underwent gastrointestinal endoscopy between February 2015 and May 2017, the electronic medical records of 335 who reportedly developed adverse events were retrospectively reviewed, and analysis was performed to determine the risk factors for hypoxemia and sedation failure, the two most frequent adverse events among those manifested during gastrointestinal endoscopy.
Results: The overall adverse event rate was 0.38% (n = 335); hypoxemia was most frequent, accounting for 40.7% (n = 90), followed by sedation failure (34.8%, n = 77), delayed discharge from the recovery room (22.1%, n = 49), and hypotension (2.2%, n = 5). Compared with the control group, the hypoxemia group did not show any significant differences in sex and body weight, but mean age was significantly older (P < 0.001) and a significantly lower dose of midazolam was administered (P < 0.001). In the group with sedation failure, the mean rate was higher in men (P < 0.001) and a significantly higher dose of midazolam was administered (P < 0.001), but no age difference was found.
Conclusions: Midazolam-based conscious sedation during gastrointestinal endoscopy can lead to various adverse events. In particular, as elderly patients are at higher risk of developing hypoxemia, midazolam dose adjustment and careful monitoring are required in this group.
Key Words : Conscious sedation; Gastrointestinal endoscopy; Hypoxemia; Midazolam.

October 2019, 14 (4)
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